Introduction to Microcontroller Unit

Post Date:2021-08-27,Murata

Introduction to Microcontroller Unit

Microcontroller (MCU), also known as single-chip microcomputer or MCU, is to appropriately reduce the frequency and specifications of the central processing unit (CPU), reduce memory, USB, counter (timer), A/D conversion, UART, PLC, DMA, etc. Peripheral interfaces and even LCD drive circuits are integrated on a chip to form a chip-level computer, which carries out different control combinations for different applications. MCUs can be found in mobile phones, PC peripherals, remote controls, automotive electronics, industrial stepper motors, and robotic arm controls.

Single chip microcomputer
Main classification
Classified by purpose:
Universal: Provide users with all the resources (ROM, RAM, I/O, EPROM) that can be developed.
Special type: its hardware and instructions are designed according to specific purposes, such as recorder motion controllers, printer controllers, air-conditioning remote control motor controllers, etc.
Classified according to the number of data bits processed by its basic operations:
According to the width of the bus or data register, microcontrollers are divided into 1-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and even 64-bit microcontrollers. Most 4-bit MCUs are used in calculators, car meters, car alarms, pagers, wireless phones, CD players, LCD drive controllers, LCD game consoles, children's toys, scales, chargers, tire pressure meters, temperature and humidity meters, Remote control and point-and-shoot cameras; 8-bit MCUs are mostly used in electric meters, motor controllers, electric toy machines, inverter air conditioners, pagers, fax machines, caller ID, call recorders, CRT displays, keyboards and USB; 8-bit and 16-bit single-chip microcomputers Mainly used in general control field, generally do not use operating system, 16-bit microcontrollers are mostly used in mobile phones, digital cameras and camcorders; most 32-bit MCUs are used in Modem, GPS, PDA, HPC, STB, Hub, Bridge, Router , Workstation, ISDN phone, laser printer and color fax machine; 32-bit is used for network processing, multimedia processing and other complex processing, generally using embedded operating system. Most 64-bit MCUs are used in high-end workstations, multimedia interactive systems, advanced TV game devices (such as SEGA's Dreamcast and Nintendo's GameBoy) and advanced terminals.

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